Trillium plants comes in a variety of different shapes, colors and even sizes. From the great white trillium to pink, purple and even red, no other shade perennial plants looks as exotic as trillium plants.
Botanical Latin Name: Trillium undulatum Wild.
Common Name: Painted lady, painted trillium, painted wake-robin
Sun Exposure: partial sun to full shade
Hardiness Zones: USDA zones 4-7
Mature Height: 8” to 18” tall
Spread: 12” wide
Spacing: 2 feet
Growth Rate: Perennial, slow growing
Flowering Time: Early to late spring
How Long It Flowers: 3-4 weeks
Flower Color: White petals with a touch of pink or purple at the base
Flower Form: The Trillium undulatum is an endangered plant is most areas. The plant is slow to reach blooming size. It could take up to 15 years in some cases. Also if the flower is picked, this perennial goes into shock and could easily be another 7 years before it flowers again. The advantage to this plant, however, is that it can live up to 70 years.
The painted trillium consists of three large leaves. The blue-green leaves are about 2 to 4 inches long. From the leaves is a thin arching stock where the single flower blooms. The three petals of the flower have a wavy edge. At the base of the flower, is an upside down v that is a pink to purple in color. In the fall a seed producing red berry appears. The leaves are edible but the berry and root are not.
The seeds are very attractive to ants and they help to spread this wildflower. They take the seed back to their nest and eat the fleshy meat. When they are finished with the seed, they dispose of it in another part of their nest. It is in this space that the seed is protected and able to germinate and grow.
This perennial likes a moist soil but not wet. It grows easily in rotted logs and trees in the forest. People use this plant for borders and ground cover for shady areas.
Common Name: Toad Trillium (or Toadshade)
Sun Exposure: Part to full shade
Hardiness Zones: 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
Mature Height: 12 in.
Spread: 12 in.
Spacing: 10 in.
Growth Rate: 12 in./year
Flowering Time: April - June
How Long It Flowers : Blooms last several weeks
Flower Color: Maroon, purple
Soil Requirements: Rich, well drained soil
Pruning: Wait until leaves are no longer green to cut back
Flower Form: Toad trillium is a perennial woodland wildflower native to eastern North America. Its leaves grow in a whorl of three; they are green with mottling that sometimes looks like camouflage. Mottling varies from slight to very pronounced. The single flower grows from the center of the leaves. Its three petals stand upright, and can range in color from dark red to purple. While some trilliums smell sweet.Trilliums grow from rhizomes. Left undisturbed, they will slowly spread on their own. They can be propagated from seed, but it can take up to two years for the seed to sprout.
The Trillium is a more compact flower with a large spread. The very well-defined three leaves around the Purple Trilium cradle the flower neatly, for an attractive presentation. Its bold red/purple color creates a strong contrast with surrounding foliage. Occasionally flowers will be white or yellow. The flowers produce a scent which can attract flies, which is how it got the nickname "stinking benjamin."
Mature Height: 6 - 12 inches
Botanical Name: Trillium erectum
Common Name: Yellow Trillium
Sun Exposure: Light to dappled shade
Hardiness Zones: 4-8
Mature Height: 6-12 inches tall
Spread: 6-12 inches wide
Spacing: 6-9 inches
Growth Rate: Moderate grower
Flowering Time: Late April to mid-May
How Long It Flowers: Two-three weeks
Flower Color: Bright yellow
Soil Requirements: Moist, rich, and well-drained soil is necessary
Pruning: No pruning is required
Flower Form: The yellow trillium can be easily distinguished from other types of trillium flowers by the bright yellow color of its flowers. The mature plants have a single ascending stalk. At the top of the stalk are three wide spread sessile leaves. The color of these leaves is mottled with purple and light green shades. Sitting directly on top of those three leaves is a single yellow flower. This flower has three curved yellow petals, three sepals of varying green shades, and six stamens in the center. These beautiful plants can live for 25 years or longer, however they do not start to bloom until they are several years old.
Common Name: white trillium, great white trillium, white wakerobin, tri flower, birthroot
Sun Exposure: Shade to part sun
Hardiness Zones: 3 to 7
Mature Height: 1 to 2 feet
Spread: approximately 1 ½ feet
Spacing: 12 inches
Growth Rate: Slow, flowers do not show until third season
Flowering Time: Late April through June
How Long It Flowers: About one month
Flower Color: white, turns pink as it ages and after pollination
Soil Requirements: well-drained, neutral to slightly acid soils
Pruning: Rarely needed, but should be done as the old blooms fade if required
Flower Form: Pink Trillium is a perennial plant that is comprised of three bracts, or leaves that lack petioles. These three leaves are the plant’s only food source and are ovate in shape with tapered points. The flower is comprised of three sepals, three petals and six stamens which surround three styles. The petals are typically 1.5 to 2.7 inches in length. The fruit of the trillium is a green orb that is both mealy and moist.
Common Name: Wake-Robin
Sun Exposure: Part shade to full shade
Hardiness Zones: 3-8
Mature Height: 1-3 ft
Spread: 6-12 inches
Spacing: 12-18 inches
Growth Rate: Moderate
Flowering Time: Mid-spring to mid-summer
How Long It Flowers : 2-3 weeks
Flower Color: White
Soil Requirements: Rich, moist, well drained
Flower Form: Mature trilliums have a single stem, 3 leaves, and 3 white petals. The flowers start out white and fade to pink. The blooms are pollinated by honeybees and produce a seed which is primarily dispersed by ants. Containers, flower beds and borders are great spots for trilliums along with woodland gardens.
Trilliums are grown from a rhizome. They are drought tolerant and once established they have been known to grow for 70 years. Maintenance requirements are minimal with pruning necessary only to remove dead leaves.
Leaves from the trillium can be cooked and eaten. The root of the plant is a diuretic but may also be ground up and used to reduce swelling of the eyes. A tea made from the grated root can be used to ease cramps also.
Common Name: Beige Trillium
Sun Exposure: Partial shade to Full Shade
Hardiness Zones: USDA zones 3 to 8
Mature Height: 8 to 18 inches tall
Spread: 1 to 2 feet
Spacing: 1 to 2 inches apart for seeds and up to 10 inches from rhizomes
Growth Rate: From seed up to 2 years for seeds to grow and up to 7 for flowers, from rhizomes up to 1 year
Flowering Time: Late Spring
How Long It Flowers: Up to 3 weeks
Flower Color: Beige
Soil Requirements: Average, moist
Pruning: Divide in late spring or early fall
Flower Form: The Beige Trillium grows from an underground rhizome naturally. The rhizome grows horizontally under the ground. The trillium grows with three leaves on the mature plant with three petals and three sepals sprouting from the middle of the flower. Both the leaves and the petals are triangular shaped with the wider part closest to the middle of the flower. The leaves are bright green in color and the flower is a beige color that looks almost white.
Trillium Erectum is more commonly known as wake-robin trillium. It is a species of flowers that are native to the east and north-eastern parts of North America. It can weather extremely cold winters and can tolerate temperatures down to negative thirty-five degrees. It most commonly blooms during the spring, and an interesting characteristic of it is that its lifespan is synchronized with the life of the forest in which it resides. The plant's height generally falls between 7 and 16 inches. The plants overall width is 12 inches wide. The colors of the plant's flower is usually a dark reddish-purple, which is the reason the flower received its nickname, wake-robin, given to it for its resemblance to the bird during the flowers blooming period in the spring. Occasionally, the plant's flowers will be white, and even more rarely, the flower will turn a pinkish-green. The plant can be found in zones 3 to 8.
Botanical Latin Name: Trillium Recurvatum
Common Name: Prairie Trillium, Bloody Butcher, Purple Wakerobin, Wood Lily, Trinity Flower.
Sun Exposure: Shade to part sun
Hardiness Zones: 4 to 9
Mature Height: 1 - 3 foot
Spread: 6 - 12 inches
Spacing: 6 - 12 inches
Growth Rate: Moderate
Flowering Time: Early Spring
How Long It Flowers: Perennials (about 3 weeks)
Flower Color: Brown, Red, White, Yellow
Soil Requirements: Well-drained, rich, moist, loamy, and neutral to acidic soil.
Pruning: Not necessary except to remove dieback and possibly to shape.
Flower Form: This plant has upright blooms without stalks. The leaves are somewhat shiny and have intermittent patches of light and dark green. The flower has three green sepals, three brownish petals and six black stamens with the tips facing skyward. This plant has numerous feeder roots and a thick main rootstock. It serves great as ground covers, Woodland Gardens, naturalizing, and general garden use. These beautiful flowers come in multiple pretty colors and are a great addition to almost any garden needing plants and flowers for decoration and vibrancy.